Indian music, in its sojourn in space and time may be divided, in a historical perspective, into three phases: ancient, medieval, and modern. These may be regarded as ending approximately in the thirteen century, eighteenth century and our own times respectively. The present volume deals with such an evolution during the first phase of Indian music, viz., the ancient. The present work endeavours to set forth the conceptual evolution of two foundational and differentiating elements of India music, viz., raga and tala. Indian music rests on the tripod of raga and tala and prabandha. These represent respectively the sound, time and structural aspects of musical experience. Prabandha, in the sense of form, worded or otherwise, emerges from a matrix of raga and tala. These two characteristics differentiate Indian music from all its comperes. The work also studies Vedic music and music as depicted in Natyasastra Brhaddesi of Matanga and Sangitaratnakara. A brief survey of Western musical aesthetics and its practical variations is also a salient feature of this work. The volume traces the evolution of our music and shows how our musical traditions, in spite of several modifications and adjustments during the course of the centuries, have been maintained in essence throughout.