ISBN 9788121505536,Gender And Salvation: Jaina Debates On The Spiritual Liberation Of Women

Gender And Salvation: Jaina Debates On The Spiritual Liberation Of Women

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ISBN 9788121505536

Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd

Publication Year 1992

ISBN 9788121505536

ISBN-10 8121505534

Hard Back

Number of Pages 260 Pages
Language (English)

Religion: general

Among the living religious traditions of India, only that of the Jainas includes a substantial number of women in the community of religious aspirants who renounce the household life and take the vows of mendicancy. This phenomenon might suggest that Jaina women enjoy a status of religious and spiritual equality unparalleled elsewhere on the subcontinent, but even within the Jaina tradition there exists a deep schism concerning that status. In this volume, Professor Jaini brings to light heretofore untranslated texts evidencing a centuries-old debate between the two principal Jaina sects, the Digambaras and the Svetambaras, on the critical issue of whether or not women can attain spiritual liberation (moksa). The debate focuses on the question of whether total renunciation of clothing is a prerequisite to moksa. For the Digambaras, the example of total nudity set by Mahavira (599-527 B.C.), the central spiritual figure of Jainism, mandates an identical practice for all who aspire to the highest levels of religious attainment; Digambara monks therefore go about naked. For the Svetambaras, the renunciation necessary for such attainment is neither affected nor confirmed by the absence of clothes; Svetambara monks therefore go about clad in cotton robes. Both sects agree, however, that nudity is not permitted for women under any circumstances. This necessitates the conclusion that for the Digambaras a woman cannot attain moksa, while for the Svetambaras she can. From this conclusion follows a heated debate on a question of fundamental importance, namely, the manner in which gender-based differences of biology and life experience may condition or limit an individual's ability to accomplish the ultimate religious goal. In addressing that question, the Jaina thinkers whose words are here translated demonstrate through logical analysis a level of insight into the constraints on women and their spiritual attainments that transcends the context of the discussion and relates directly to current debates on the effect of gender in our own society. Professor Jaini's learned selection, translation, and introduction to these unique texts, along with Professor Goldman's essay setting the debate in the context of the broader social history of traditional India, provide new and illuminating insights into the question of gender and religion that will be of great interest to students of India, comparative religion, and women's studies. Contents Foreword/Robert P. Goldman Preface Introduction 1. The Sutraprabhrta (Suttapahuda) of the Digambara Acarya Kundakunda (c. A.D. 150) 2. The Strinirvanaprakarana with the Svopajnavrtti of the Yapaniya Acarya Sakatayana (c. 814-867) 3. The Nyayakumudacandra of the Digambara Acarya Prabhacandra (c. 980-1065) 4. The Tatparyavrtti of the Digambara Acarya Jayasena (c. 1180) : A Commentary on the Pravacanasara of Kundakunda 5. The Tarkarahasyadipikavrtti of the Svetambara Acarya Gunaratna (c. 1343-1418) : A Commentary on the Saddarsanasamuccaya of Haribhadra 6. The Yuktiprabodha with the Svopajnavrtti of the Svetambara Upadhyaya Meghavijaya (c. 1653-1704)