Although the history of the Iranian monarchy itself goes back 2,500 years, the periods of strong rule during important dynasties, such as the Achaemenids and the Sasanids, were very short-lived. After the Arab conquest in the reign of 'Omar (634-644), Iran was ruled first from Medina and then from Damascus and later from Baghdad. Later still, Iran was ruled largely by Turkish and Mongol invaders. The Iranian people had never, however, hesitated to resist tyrannous rule. From the time of the legendary Kaveh in Ferdowsi's Shahnama to that of Ayatollahol 'Ozma Rouhollah Khomeini, the Iranian masses have struggled to establish a just and dynamic society. There has been no dearth of counter-revolutions, demagogues and impostors either. Many revolutions designed to overthrow despotism culminated in a new tyranny leading to a fresh revolution. Although the present work describes all important rebellions, revolutions and terrorist activities in Iran, it sees revolution only in terms of those human endeavours which fulfill a crucial function in the development of society; and does not seek to pass moral judgments. The work is also designed to analyse the process of reconstruction and revolution within the framework of the political, religious, literary and artistic development of Iran.