A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is one of India's most distinguished scientists, responsible for the development of India's first satellite launch vehicle and the operationalization of strategic missiles. He also pioneered India Vision 2020, a road map for transforming India. The President of India between 2002 and 2007, Dr Kalam has been awarded honorary doctorates from thirty-eight universities and the country's three highest civilian honours—the Padma Bhushan (1981), Padma Vibhushan (1990) and Bharat Ratna (1997). A prolific and bestselling author, he now conducts lectures on societal development in many international institutes and is involved in research on different societal missions.