ISBN 9788130931333,Fundamentals of X-ray Physics

Fundamentals of X-ray Physics



Viva Education Private Ltd

Publication Year 2015

ISBN 9788130931333

ISBN-10 8130931338


Number of Pages 260 Pages
Language (English)

Applied physics

The theory of the formation of characteristic and braking X-ray radiation is described. Special features of a number of sources of this radiation are discussed. Special attention is given to the interaction of X-ray radiation with matter (processes of absorption, scattering, refraction and reflection). The problems of excitation of X-ray fluorescence and its dependence on a number of factor is studied.

About the Author

Prof Gely Veniaminovich Pavlinsky is the Departmental Head at the Institute of Applied Physics in Irkutsk, Russia. He has published more then 120 articles in various scientific journals and specialized in the interaction of charged particles and photons with matter, X-ray fluorescence and development of theoretical fundamentals and procedures for X-ray fluorescence analysis.

Table of Contents:
Preface Introduction Characteristic x-ray radiation Development of concepts of the atom structure The equation for the energy of x-ray levels of the atom Systematics of characteristic lines The Moseley law Spin-doublets in the x-ray spectrum Screening doublets Determination of the screening constants s1 and s2 The fine structure of the x-ray levels Intensity of the lines of the characteristic spectrun The relative intensity of lines Selection rules Effect of the 'population' of the levels on the relative intensity of multiplet lines Effect of the Koster--Kronig transition on the relative intensity of lines Determination of the probability of pif of intra-atomic transitions X-ray fluorescence yield The intensity of characteristic radiation, excited by the electron flux Basic equation for the intensity of characteristic radiation, excited by electrons Taking into account backscattering of the electrons Taking into account the absorption of characteristic x-ray radiation Taking into account the effect of selective excitation of target atoms Simulation of the processes of excitation of x-ray radiation by the method of statistical evaluation Bremsstrahlung Spectral distribution of the intensity of bremsstrahlung Basic equation for the spectral intensity of bremsstrahlung Improvement and modification of Kramers' formula Spatial distribution of bremsstrahlung Polarisation of bremsstrahlung Sources of x-ray radiation X-radiation excited by the electron beam. X-ray tubes The ratio of the intensities of the characteristic and continuous components of radiation of x-ray tubes Special features of the spectral distribution of radiation of the x-ray tubes with an earthed cathode Excitation of x-radiation by the ion beam Characteristic radiation Bremsstrahlung of ions Radioactive sources of x-ray radiation Capture of the electron from K-shell by the atomic nucleus. Internal conversion Bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation of sources, associated with nuclear b-radiation X-ray radiation, accompanying a-breakdown Synchrotron -- a source of x-ray radiation X-ray radiation of high-temperature plasma X-ray lasers Absorption of x-ray radiation Electronic, partial and atomic coefficients of absorption Absorption jumps Structure of absorption edges Linear and mass coefficient of attenuation of x-ray radiation Scattering of x-ray radiation The scattering of x-ray radiation on free electrons Coherent scattering Non-coherent scattering Intensity of x-ray radiation, scattered on free electrons The scattering of x-ray radiation on atoms Coherent scattering by atoms Non-coherent scattering by atoms The ratio of the intensities of coherent and non-coherent scattering on the atoms Intensity of x-ray radiation scattered by a thick specimen Scattering of x-ray radiation by ordered structures Resonance combination scattering of x-ray radiation Refraction and reflection of x-ray radiation Theoretical fundamentals of studymg dispersion Refraction of x-rays Total external reflection of x-ray radiation Interference of x-ray radiation Reflection of x-ray radiation by the layer-substrate system and by multilayer structures Fields of standing waves Practical application of the optical properties of x-ray radiation. Expanding the possibilities of x-ray spectrometry Methods of focusing x-ray radiation Comparison of the resolution power and reflectivity of x-ray optical elements Free electrons, formed in irradiated material. Bremsstrahlung of these electrons Photoelectrons Auger electrons Recoil electrons (Compton electrons) Bremsstrahlung of photoelectrons, Auger electrons and recoil electrons Comparison of spectral distributions of bremsstrahlung of photo-Auger and Compton electrons X ray fluorescence Intensity of x-ray fluorescence Effect of the particle size on the intensity of x-ray fluorescence Effect of the element composition of the specimen on the intensity of x-ray fluorescence Dependence of the intensity of x-ray fluorescence on primary radiation wavelength Process of excitation of x fluorescence for the case in which the areas of absorption of primary radiation and formation of a fluorescent photon coincide Formation of x-ray fluorescence as a result of cascade transitions Ionisation of atoms by photo- and Auger electrons Processes of excitation of x-ray fluorescence for the case in which the areas of interaction of primary radiation and formation of the fluorescent photon differ Effect of scattering processes on the intensity of x-ray fluorescence Ionisation of the L-shell by K-radiation of the same element (seif-excita-tion) Excitation of x-ray fluorescence by radiation of other elements, present in the irradiated material Third order effects Selective absorption of primary radiation Perturbing effect of elements on the intensity of x-ray fluorescence Excitation of x-ray fluorescence by polychromatic primary radiation The integral-free model of calculating the intensity of x-ray radiation Equivalent parameters of inhomogeneous primary radiation Second order effects in inhomogeneous primary radiation Cascade transitions and self-excitation Ionisation of atoms by photo- and Auger electrons Selective excitation effect Perturbing effect. Compensation Special features of the excitation of x-ray fluorescence of elements with low atomic numbers Conclusions References Index